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Ion Exchange Technology
Ion exchanger resins are macromolecular compounds, with the three-dimensional grid which forms their base. On this base, there are active (ion-exchange) groups placed. Ion exchange resins are produced in the form of small spheres with 0,3 to 1,5 mm diameter, which allows a quantitative removal of the undesirable ions from the water, in exchange for those which have functional groups of ion exchange resin preliminarily saturated during the regeneration and which for this purpose does not matter.
By appropriate combination of ion exchange resins, it is possible to achieve deionization or demineralization of water. We talk about so-called ion exchange. Ion exchange resins are water and ordinary organic and inorganic solvents insoluble. In water they swell, basic grid expands and ion exchange resin becomes porous, where functional groups dissociate and are accessible to the purified solution.
Ion exchange process is an equilibrium process, which interchanges the undesirable ions distributed in processed water for the ions of the acceptable substance which are seized to the resin grid. After some period, the ion exchange resin becomes fully saturated by separated ions and it becomes uncapable of the qualitative ion exchange. Exhausted resin needs to be recovered by flushing with the concentrated solution of the original ions, when ion exchange capacity is again restored and resin is ready to be used again. This process is called regeneration or reactivation.